My Aqua Tally: Eco friendly, Be Healthy and Merry

ImageWe all do know that water occupies and plays 80% of your body. We read and get to hear the same advice to gulp up more water than any beverages but do we really get to gulp up as much as we thought we’ve been having?

From what seemed to be just a requirement for her family and herself to track down their hydration; Julie Bischoff, the founder of Aqually Tally, Inc., a Registered nurse, took inspiration of what seemed to be a simple necessity into a brilliant prototype.

Turn the white indicator on the cup to keep track of how much water you get to drink for the day. It may seem a little lame but once you’ve had it; you’ll know how helpful this cup is.

It’s not rocket science nor do we have to reiterate to anyone that hydrating your body can dramatically improve what you feel inside and out. AquaTally makes tracking hydration easy. It’s spot on, honest and simple.

Over the holidays, I have been using my own cup and realized that in an average, all the while I thought I have consistently been a heavy drinker. I used to gulp 2 Liters of water (or at least I thought I’ve built on the habit) but turned out, in an average, I was only drinking about 4 cups in a day which means, I haven’t been consistent on my hydration goals.

For only $11.95, this BPA Free, Dishwasher safe and Double wall AquaTally cup can transform your health drastically. How can you say no to a tool which can help you reduce fatigue, headaches, help you maintain your healthy weight, improve your concentration, keep your kidneys and organs working properly, regularize your bowel movement and have that glowing skin? doubt you will. You just have to have this.

Make sure you have one of these nearby while you’re at work, in school or probably when you’re at home. It’ll also help you reduce the amount of drinking cups on your dishwasher since you’ll be left with just one throughout the day.

I’ve got two (2) of these and it’s been playing a huge role on achieving my daily hydration goal. For more information, you may download this link and get to know the answers to frequently asked questions.


Wind Burn on my Cheeks Remedy

wind burnUnpredictable weather. Living in a tropical country,we should’ve been used to this already however due to climate change; sometimes it’s burning hot during the day and then there will be pockets of rain, sudden cold and chilly weather and then would be scorching hot in-between.

Our body, as much as it can adopt to how the weather is. We also have to help it recover.

If you’re having these red inflamed clusters on your cheeks, you should take action before it worsens into these rough felt like butterfly rashes. Mind you, it’s not pretty and can’t be hidden by concealers.

After having to use different kinds of moisturizers throughout the years, as much as you would like to be loyal to a brand, if it has gone immune on your system; you’d always have to find an alternative to help your skin not have these concerns.

Here are products I’ve discovered which are specially formulated:

Physiogel cleanser and Physiogel Moisturizer

This is what I use on the first layer after I wash my face with cold water and dried with a warm soft cloth. Physiogel  has natural lipids similar to the skin’s physiological lipids to protect and restore healthy skin. It’s non-comedogenic, contains no colourants, no perfume and best of all, it doesn’t have any preservatives.

VMV Hypoallergenics: Creammmy Rich Intensive Moisture Milk (dry skin)

Created by a renowned dermatologist -dermatopathologist, this moisturizer skincerly has collagen and spf 15.  Just like what it says on its packaging – this moisturizer surely soothes, and intensely hydrates your skin, buttered with virgin coconut oil and glycerin.

VMV Armada
VMV ArmadaArmada Face Cover SPF 45

One of the newest products of VMV Hypollergenics perfect for summer and tropical use. After applying the two moisturizers, it’s best to apply this Skin-lightening, full-specturm, indoor and outdoor sun and light screen to give your skin an intensive protection against skin darkening and melasma.
You know what they say: prevention is better than cure.

vMv samplerRed Better Flare-up Balm

What I love about VMV, they’re generous when it comes to samplers especially if you’re always on the go and you just need a moisturizer that’ll come in handy.  This product is what I use when my face has already reached its inflamed state and starting to itch. Upon application of this balm, expect that your skin will comply and recover right away.

I would like to remind you that although these products has been working for me perfectly doesn’t mean it may also work for you, however, knowing that it’s hypoallergenic, it does pass our skin’s rightful PH level.

Here are few more things for you to consider and remember:

  • Always wash your face day and night with cold clean water (if it’s alkaline, that’ll be best!)
  • ONLY use a soft face towel upon drying of your face
  • Once the make up you tried has this burning sensation, WASH YOUR FACE RIGHT AWAY.
  • Don’t wear make up often but if you do, make sure you go through the cleansing process.
  • Use what your skin is comfortable with. If it’s flaring up, that’s not the one for you.
  • Sheer away from any cosmetics that has alcohol and paraben.
  • have your regular facial pampering day and diamond peel to vacuum those dead cells.
  • Drink lots of water and skin-nourishing foods.

Hope this post helps!

Benefits of Yoga for Migraine

Migraine belongs to the world’s most debilitating medical disorder, and in 2004, the World Health Organization ranked migraine as the 3rd most prevalent health illness worldwide. According to a study conducted in New Delhi, steady yoga sessions can cut back migraine attacks by 70%.

What is Migraine?
Migraine is actually a neurological disease that has incomparable symptoms to regular headache. In regular headache, pain develops when blood vessels constrict but in migraine, pain gets worse when blood vessels expand. Symptoms of migraine are more depressing than regular headache. Migraines are triggered easily and pain doesn’t go right away.

Some of the predisposing factors of migraine include weather, chocolates, fish, cheese, lights, smoke, certain smell and stress. Taking birth control pills also trigger migraine attacks.

Why Migraines are Dangerous?
Migraines are a one disease that should be taken seriously. Migraines are dangerous because they can lead to life threatening conditions such as stroke and aneurysm.

Does Yoga Benefits Migraine?
There is a little scientific study between the benefits of yoga for migraine. The disclosure was affirmed by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke which has revealed that regular yoga sessions help rebuff migraines by reducing stress levels in the body as well as muscular tension. On the other side, in a published article of Headache, result of the study revealed that participants who have continued sessions on yoga have reported lesser migraine attacks compared to those who don’t take yoga classes. However, it must be cleared that yoga is not the sole resolution for migraines but a technique to reduce stress that in turn causes migraines.

Meanwhile, it also has been found out that certain brain chemical plays an essential role in headaches. Serotonin, for example, is found in decreasing levels during migraine attacks. Yoga, as proven in studies, is able to improve levels of serotonin in the body.

What are the Benefits of Yoga to Migraine?
Yoga has stress-reducing ability and not only benefits migraine but likewise freezes other health problems. Yoga is safe, effective and found to have no complications except for individuals who have problems on posture and joint damages.

In a nutshell, the following are the justifications regarding the benefits of yoga for migraine:

• Yoga decreases cortisol in the body which is as a precursor hormone of stress.
• Yoga reduces stress, anxiety and muscle tension, three of the common incitations of migraines.
• Yoga improves posture.
• Yoga increases body awareness. You are able to know your body and identify even the most subtle changes. For example, you are able to recognize that migraine is coming on by its initial signs.
• Yoga calms your body by performing restorative poses of yoga.

Beat the Heat: NEW Gold Bond No Mess Powder Spray

Gold Bond has been the gold standard for beating the heat and staying cool and dry for generations. Now, the same trusted brand is available in a NEW no mess powder spray that delivers the odor and wetness protection of Gold Bond Powder in a convenient, easy-to-use spray.

The continuous spray delivers right where you want it – with a targeted stream different from the traditional powder. So whether you’re looking to stay cool and dry for peak performance, or you just want to relieve and protect against skin discomfort, you can count on Gold Bond’s triple action formula. Afterall, it’s provided relief since 1908.


The product hits shelves in retailers nationwide this spring.

Gold Bond No Mess Powder Spray Fast Facts:

Product benefits: Delivers the odor and wetness protection of Gold Bond Powder in a convenient, easy-to-use spray. The product provides triple action relief: cools on contact, absorbs moisture and soothes skin.

When/How to Use: After shower, bath or exercise or whenever you want to stay cool and dry, simply use Gold Bond No Mess Powder Spray for lasting deodorant protection and that cool, refreshing feeling.

Who Uses: People who want to stay comfortable while being active and people engaging in outdoor activities: sports, work, hiking, music festivals, summer sports camps, military, etc.

Product ingredients: Talc, starch, zinc oxide, fragrance, cooling and soothing agents, and botanicals.

Available in Two Formulas:

Classic: Captures the feel, relief and scent of the original, classic medicated powder.
Fresh: An update on the classic. Same feel and relief, but with a light, fresh fragrance.

● Size: 7 oz, 360 degree spray
● Suggested Retail Price/Availability: $7.99, On shelves next to Gold Bond Powder at major retailers including Wal-Mart, Target and Walgreens.

About Gold Bond:
Powerful, hard working and trusted since 1908. Now in its second century of healing, Gold Bond offers a broad line of products, including some of the fastest growing hand and body lotions, as well as the top selling medicated body powder, foot powder, foot cream, and foot pain cream in America. For more information, visit Gold Bond on Facebook and Twitter.

YOGA: Manduka, Launch inspires unBLOK party campaign and contest‹celebrating and giving thanks to community yoga studios

Manduka, purveyor of high performance yoga gear and the #1 choice of yoga teachers worldwide, revealed today the latest addition to its innovative family of yoga mats, props and accessories‹the Recycled Foam unBLOK. Thoughtfully designed to be the most versatile foam block in the market, the unBLOK¹s functional, sleek design, user-friendly shape and high quality eco-friendly materials will help provide yoga practitioners versatility in traditional poses, offering a deeper, more natural support throughout their practice.

Inspired by the unblocking that naturally occurs when you have a powerful yoga session, Manduka is supporting the launch with a digital campaign celebrating the community spaces that help practitioners achieve breakthroughs: local yoga studios. Kicking off today, the unBLOK party campaign and contest encourages yogis to nominate their local studio via Facebook, sharing how their favorite practice space helps them ³unblock² and return to the world with new clarity.

³Manduka’s mission is to soulfully engineer yoga gear to help people inspire the practice of yoga and find personal breakthroughs,² said Sky Meltzer, CEO Manduka. ³Many of these breakthroughs happen in a yoga studio environment. We are encouraging our community to give thanks to the people and places who have helped them on their path, acknowledging our local studios for their huge role in our practice and our lives.²


Through the unBLOK party campaign and contest, Manduka is making it easy for practitioners to show their studio some love. Simply:

Nominate‹Head over to Manduka¹s Facebook page and answer a few questions on your inspirational studio. Manduka will thank you with a special offer.

Select‹Manduka will select five studio nominations to feature on a dedicated landing page: The selected studios will be outfitted in Manduka yoga gear. Additionally, five people who nominate will be gifted with an unBLOK kit.

Vote‹The community will be encouraged to visit the unBLOK landing page to vote for their studio of choice. The winning studio will receive additional Manduka yoga gear and an ŒunBLOK¹ party‹an in-studio experience inclusive of yoga taught by a high-profile teacher followed by a celebration with music, food and product giveaways.

Give‹Manduka will sponsor a teacher or teachers at the winning studio to do their own seva work bringing yoga to an underserved area in their local community.

Nominations are open starting today and will run through May 21. Voting on will begin May 31.

For more information on Manduka, please visit: join us on Facebook or follow us @MandukaYoga

About Manduka Founded in 1997, Manduka was built on the simple idea that a better yoga mat can make a world of difference. Manduka strives to support and enrich the yoga community by providing premium quality mats and products while respecting employees, customers, materials, and the environment. Created for and by yoga enthusiasts, Manduka¹s technical and purpose-driven product designs meet and often exceed the distinct needs of all practitioners.

Today Manduka¹s products, which include yoga mats, towels, yoga straps, water bottles, and bags, are sold in more than 35 countries around the world. Not only focusing on superior design, Manduka also promotes their ethos of quality, thoughtfulness and sustainability in all realms of their business.

Get Excellence And Energetic Workouts With These Ellipticals

As more people get tuned to the benefits of living healthy through a health and wellbeing regimen that entails exercise, they turn to a number of exercise aids, including elliptical machines to help them achieve their goals.

Elliptical machines are popular as an excellent way to manage weight and improve heart health. In fact, the primary function of an elliptical machine is to strengthen the heart’s muscles through appropriate, measured stress thereby improving proper functioning of the body’s cardiovascular system. In terms of warding off extra pounds, ellipticals help blast fat from the glutes, quads, hamstrings, flexors, and the calves. These machines are also great at helping burn calories that leads to weight shedding.

It’s important to know however that not all elliptical machines are created equal, and when it comes to top quality and functionality, Nordictrack has a range of top-class machines to suit the varying needs of individuals. For those wishing to obtain an elliptical machine, a view of options on can provide information and insight toward making the best choice possible. Ellipticals from present the health seeker with options to fit a wide range of needs and a broad scope of budgets.

While all ellipticals from are excellent at helping the health conscious achieve their exercise goals, each has been designed with machine-specific features that target the different and unique needs of various users. Here is some insight on some of the rock star ellipticals that are available at

-The FreeStrider 35 Si with iFit elliptical machine features iFit technology that offers users customizable workout options that include virtual locations powered by Google Maps. The wireless technology built into this powerful machine also features training by popular workout professional, Jillian Michaels and Performance Workouts by several other expert trainers.

This great machine also offers users the power to zone in on up to 15 trouble spot areas of the body. Users just select the target muscle group and the machine adjusts resistance accordingly.

Defining upper body areas such as the chest, arms and shoulders with the Dual-Action Upper-Body Arms system, and set the machine to a range of stable and comfortable positions with ergonomically designed oversized pedals.

The music port that is iPod compatible, real time stride monitoring console, a cooling workout fan, heart rate monitor, and the Graffix brand LCD display that makes reading console information clear and easy, are some of the other features of the machine. The FreeStrider 35 Si with iFit elliptical machine is available on for $2,499. invites viewers to “get unbeatable results for an unbeatable price” with the E 9.0 Elliptical for just $849, sale price.

This machine is iFit compatible, and has thirty body-workout options through special built-in apps. These versatile apps customize exercises to target both upper and lower body areas. Two convenient hand grip sensors and continuous display of heart rate on the console makes exercising easier and more efficient.

The E 9.0 Elliptical allows users to change resistance and ramp settings without a break in stride with the hands “Quick Touch In-Handle Controls”. Other great features of this machine include “Soft touch upper body grips”, a port that allows for the use of an iPod, and easy-slide built-in wheels to move the machine seamlessly from one place to another.
About the Author:

Joyce G. is a professional health blogger and writer. She currently partners with in raising awareness about the importance of health and fitness. NordicTrack has come to symbolize the means for serious athletes and fitness-buffs alike to “get ready for adventure,” whatever that may be. For more information on these two ellipticals and others from among the superior range of ellipticals from

Pilipinas Darating Ako: Tunay na Ligaya!

The only distance I’ve been preparing for are merely 5k’s albeit I have been attending other activities within the 2-3 months I was away, getting back on track made me feel like a toddler learning how to walk and run. Undergoing the Couch to 5k program, because of the itch to get back on the road and get to run with fellow runners; during my seventh week, I took a 5k fun run during Condura Marathon and on the my eight, I was caught by surprise on-site when I was given a 10k race kit instead of 5k.

I took the race kit nonetheless and thought of the Galloway method: I’ve done this before, I can do it again. Towards the 5k turn around point, I almost took a U-turn to continuously run the entire 5k stretch as planned but fought over my mind and pursued the road. Fear and being impatient shouldn’t stop me from logging in more mileage, so, since the weather was fully cooperating and the sunrise was just too nice to miss, I just ran and took that time as an opportunity for me to evaluate myself and burn more calories.

I needed the sweat and train my patience anyway. Good thing I was able to switch duties with my colleagues or else I would’ve gone straight to the office feeling the sore and won’t be able to perform my sales duties.

Team Reebok & Friends

It was lovely having to see Team Reebok once again and friends ( Kikay Runner, Team Diadora, Team USB and Without Limits)

How was the run? I finished with a smile on my face as if It was my first time running and seeing that finish line arch.  It was rejuvenating when these 2 boys and a girl were trying to outrun me all throughout the race, even in the middle of the Buendia Flyover – not that I’m fast (I was running in between 7:30 – 8:22 pace)  nor considering myself as competitive but the experience itself was a motivation which also gave me the assurance that running still is a tool for any of us to have fun and prove our self-worth.

Thank you to Philippine Dental Association for granting me and Team Reebok race kits to enjoy your celebration. I wondered where my relatives and Dentist friends were though?

Shirt from OneLifeCat, Apparel & Shoes from Reebok Philippines, Shades from Smith Optics (Urban Athletics)


Frankly, I was a little scared knowing it was going to be held within the long stretch of Roxas Blvd and passing through the Buendia Flyover since the previous races held there went pretty congested and roads clogged with frightful cars passing by but Without Limits was able to plan the race very well – the intersections were properly managed and even was able to arrange a mini-fiesta parade to celebrate Philippine Dental Association’s Health Month.

Marshals were situated strategically, they were very cheerful and greeted every runner with a smile on their face and towards heading back, they were pushing runners and informing every one of us that the hydration stations are just nearby or the finish line isn’t that far out anymore. I guess, we have TEAM USB to thank for the photographs, too.

Hydration wise, there were ample amount of cups of water, attendants and also waste segregation in every two kilometers.

For a non-commercial race, it pretty much expedited what intimate runs should be. It was well strategized and taken cared of. For the price of Php 400 per race kit, in every category? that pretty much sums up to a very reasonably priced run plus the proceeds will benefit PDA’s projects: BINHI (Bawat Isa Nangangako Habangbuhay Iingatan), a reforestation program, and the VIP (Very Important Patient) program that sends dentists on dental missions.

I didn’t bother to collect the loot after the race but there were toothpastes and packs of giveaway from their sponsors. What is a Dental event without the oral-hygiene essentials being given away, right?

Congratulations Philippine Dental Association!

Nestlé Fitnesse 14-days Challenge: Review

Replace your usual oatmeal or heavy breakfast to Nestle Fitnesse and dinner for a fibrous meal. Sounds easy? it sure is possible however if you’re the type who’s always on the go or couldn’t help but have dinner engagements, that surely seems to be a problem but if you plot down a game plan – your chances of fulfilling may increase possibility.

How did I fare? 10/14 The breakfast was religiously followed but the dinners weren’t as strict as I was during breakfast however this challenge not only helped me control my food intake to fibrous choices, it also helped my way of documenting my meals in order for me to review my spending habits and meals I’ve been feeding myself into.

The remedy? opt for the salads and if you’re at home during lunch, have fitnesse. This challenge will let you be in-charge and be in-control of your will power. I took it by day and managed to go for the lesser evil to what seemed to be the lesser evil than the other.

Did I lose weight? Since I’m not into the scale, I depended on my clothes and how I felt. Were there changes? yes. I felt lighter since it help regulate your bowel movement however having too much dairy (if you’re not used to having dairy twice a day) can leave your tummy feel gassy, bloated and may also give you a headache if you weren’t able to eject those toxins in your body right away. It’s important that you gulp on more water and not exceed your recommended dairy intake.

If you’re lactose intolerant or somewhere around your family background, it’s best if you go for soy milk or snack on the cereal instead of adding milk but of course, limit the snacking to its suggested serving size.

Will I do the 14 days challenge again? not the entire of it but Perhaps have cereal for dinner , when there’s nothing left other than that or when I get home late and haven’t had dinner yet.

Here’s my preferred Fruit Salad recipe I successfully came up with. You’ll be surprised, you better save some for yourself.


  • 1 can Fruit Coctail
  • 2 All purpose cream
  • 1 can condensed milk
  • crushed Nestle Fitnesse cereal (desired amount)
  • crushed Graham Crackers (option)
  • Bananas and other fruits (option)


  • mix all ingredients together
  • chill for a few hours or best eaten once it’s semi frozen.

Have you ever tried this 14 days challenge?

Timpano Italian Chophouse: Marathon Menu

There’s this restaurant I’m definitely going to visit if and when I get to fly myself out of the country again. They specially designed to cater to marathoners or those who fuels themselves with complex carbohydrates.

Timpano Italian Chophouse, located at 7488 West Sand Lake Road, will be serving up a special all-inclusive “Marathon Menu” priced at $32, developed to keep in mind the many runners participating in annual Marathon January 6 – 8, 2012.

You may click on this LINK on how to get there

The hearty high carbohydrate three course meal includes Deconstructed Buratta & Heirloom Tomato Bruschetta (high carbs, low-fat and added protein); Lentil Soup packed with complex carbohydrates and Whole Wheat Pomodoro Pasta with a choice of Grilled Chicken or Salmon. Salmon provides added Omega 3 and fat to help slow down the use of carbohydrates for needed energy.

In addition to the regular menu, the Marathon Menu will be available to all diners for lunch from 11:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. and dinner starting at 4 p.m. on January 6, 7 & 8.

Post-Marathon, runners who bring in their race medals will receive a complimentary celebratory cocktail.


Timpano Italian Chophouse brings together a timeless Chicago supper club with a classic Italian trattoria. Known for its bone-in steaks, crisp service and sophisticated surroundings, Timpano evokes another era. Timpano is open for lunch and dinner seven days a week. The Starlight Lounge offers live music five days a week. For more information visit


Tavistock Restaurant Group ( owns and manages a portfolio of restaurant brands across the United States including Aquaknox, Alcatraz Brewing Company, Blackhawk Grille, Cafe del Rey, California Cafe, Freebirds World Burrito, Napa Valley Grille, Sapporo Scottsdale, Taqueria Canonita, Timpano Italian Chophouse and ZED451. Concepts range from fast casual to fine dining. Based in the San Francisco Bay Area, Tavistock Restaurants is part of the Tavistock Group (, a global, private investment company.

Thank you Hilary Reynolds for the info.

On Running: Initial Raining Test Run

Apparel: Reebok and the CloudSurfer to test run

Last month, a cloud surfer ran its way towards my direction. A Certified head turner, it’ll compliment you and your running feet not just for quick short distances but also for those hard-knee aching long runs.

Innovation seems to continuously evolve but this pretty pair, engineered in Switzerland and well studied, made by six-time ironman winner and World Champion duathlete Olivier Bernhard. This shoe with chip soft like soles  (13 individual CloudTec Elements) prove to expose and leave you no aches or fatigue after both vertical and horizontal forces; designed as a circular hollow rubber which are located in key impact areas at the outsole.

When you’re running, the forward-pushing impact is hard to be neglected especially those who get tired easily and lose their running form, resulting to injuries and muscular breakdown.

For somebody who has been undergoing yoga for the past 2 months and logging minimal mileage, this  lightweight trainer  designed for speed, distance and efficiency has given me the boost to get back on the road.

No, I’m no longer flying to New York for ING New York Marathon due to workload and the time consuming US Visa renewal which left me with no choice but to let go of the cheap roundtrip airfare I reserved months ago. I’d probably look for a bike to ride.

I’ve tried running after a 90 minutes scourging practice in the hot chamber of yoga leaving me well worked out and tired but this cloud surfer made my tired legs and body not go hard on its impact as I stride one foot after another. It did lead me to believe that the cushion, the cloud technology of this pair indeed protect your ligaments and your overall leg muscles.

I noticed, the outsoles has a space in between the heel and the first few chips (or elements as they call it) which resulted to zero to very minimal heel strike hence naturally make you land midfoot.

First Attempt

It was pretty gloomy when I went out for a run. The initial feeling when you wear this pair of cloud surfer will leave you as if you just stepped on a comfortable wool carpet, it lets your foot slip on and off easily; as soon as you stand tall, you’d feel as if you were wearing some toddler shoes – it’s crisp, a little bouncy like you’re stepping on the clouds – you’ll feel elevated, pulled up which will help you sustain your running form.

Gloomy rainy night

The 3D CloudTec elements provide cushioning from vertical forces and amazing bounce as they lock into place. Plus the cells resist horizontal forces too, helping to stabilise the foot and improve efficiency.

The rain poured in. Ah, Perfect! I wanted to know if it’ll be too slippery on the road or it’ll still stick on the ground without you feeling as if you’re about to slip or be stuck glued which may result to a harder stride or possible injury (imagine your face flat on the ground after slipping forward). CloudSurfer didn’t fail me, it actually made me run faster than my usual,I was surprised I was able to log between a 6-7 average from  my “back in the road”  8-9 (or 10) pace per kilometer for my test miler.  I didn’t even notice that I was going that fast, it didn’t wear my legs out especially during the time when I decided to do few 50-100 meter intervals. I logged in about 4-6 pace on average, whew!

Because it claims to be a Surfer on Clouds while running, I sure am STOKED!

It may take a bit of getting used to, but this CloudSurfer is extremely comfortable once you get going. I think I just found the perfect shoe for my dreadful interval and tempo training — when I get back on the road for more serious mileage — towards my initial training to try for tri. For now, Let me head back to short distances and reclaim my personal best time years ago. It’s plausible, it certainly is possible.


On Cloudsurfer 2011 Price: £119.99 (Approx PHP 6622 )

Stay with me as I take these brightly lit ON’s out on the road.